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標題: 美國自然史博物館(American Museum of Natural History)  
 
Isaac
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UID 3203
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註冊 2008-2-11
來自 香港
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美國自然史博物館(American Museum of Natural History)

Fossil Hall
One of the premier attractions in New York City is the Museum's series of fossil halls, including its two famed dinosaur halls. The Museum is home to the world's largest collection of vertebrate fossils, totaling nearly one million specimens. More than 600 of these specimens, nearly 85 percent of which are real fossils as opposed to casts, are on view. Completely renovated between 1994 and 1996, the fossil halls now stand as a continuous loop on the fourth floor, telling the story of vertebrate evolution. Unlike most fossil exhibits, which are arranged in chronological order, the Museum's fossil halls display the specimens according to evolutionary relationships, dramatically illustrating the complex branches of the tree of life, in which animals are grouped according to their shared physical characteristics. Such relationships are determined through a method of scientific analysis called cladistics, which the Museum helped pioneer. The halls' renovation also allowed for new scientific interpretations of favorite displays, as well as the restoration of the fourth floor to its original architectural grandeur.



The earliest-known dinosaurs appeared about 228 million years ago; their fossils have been found on every continent. They dominated the land until about 65 million years ago, when an episode of extinction eliminated the non-avian dinosaurs (but not the birds) as well as many other animals and plants, both on the land and in the seas. Possible causes for these extinctions include the impact of an extraterrestrial object or a major, global peak in volcanic activity.

The American Museum of Natural History is home to the single largest collection of dinosaur fossils in the world, with more than 100 specimens featured in its halls. The Hall of Saurischian Dinosaurs examines the branches of dinosaurs that possess the trait of a grasping hand, with fingers that differ in size and shape. This hall features some of the Museum's most beloved and terrifying specimens, including Tyrannosaurus rex and Apatosaurus. Both of the displays have been revised to represent new scientific thinking: T-rex, once presented upright, is now positioned in a low, stalking pose with its tail in the air, while Apatosaurus—previously known as Brontosaurus—has a new skull, additional neck bones, and a longer, elevated tail. Also featured in this hall is the group of dinosaurs—maniraptors—that includes on its evolutionary branch living birds.




The Lila Acheson Wallace Wing of Mammals and Their Extinct Relatives—which includes the Hall of Primitive Mammals and the Paul and Irma Milstein Hall of Advanced Mammals—tells a fascinating tale of great diversification, sudden extinctions, and the forces that determine the success and obliteration of life. Mammals evolved at nearly the same time as the first dinosaurs, and the roots of the mammalian line reach back almost 300 million years. Some of the very early relatives of mammals, creatures resembling enormous lizards with giant fins along their backs, actually lived millions of years before the dinosaurs and dominated the land. Most of them then became extinct, and during the age of dinosaurs none of the mammals got much larger than small rodents. After the extinction of the large dinosaurs, the great diversity of mammals arose that we see today, including both primitive and advanced species.

The Hall of Primitive Mammals traces the lower branches of the evolutionary tree of mammals, including such features as the synapsid opening in the skull (a large hole behind the eye socket for muscles that extend to the jaw, found also in early relatives of mammals), the three middle ear bones (used to classify all mammals), and the placenta. These traits correspond to eating, hearing, and reproduction functions, and each represents an evolutionary branch. Included in this hall are monotremes, marsupials, sloths, and armadillos. Some living animals from these groups, such as the platypus, have so many primitive features that they are called "living fossils."



The Museum's tradition of excavating, studying, and exhibiting fossil mammals has an even longer and more illustrious history than its work with dinosaurs. The Museum's first expedition to search for such fossils was launched in 1891, and in 1895, before its scientists had found a single dinosaur, the Museum opened a full-scale hall of fossil mammals. This original hall, which has displayed such specimens continuously since then, now features advanced mammals with such traits as hoofs and eye sockets near the snout, in addition to those traits featured in the Hall of Primitive Mammals. A wide range of animals is represented along these evolutionary branches, including cats, seals, bears, primates, horses, whales, and elephants, along with their extinct relatives. Up until about 10,000 years ago, mammoths, mastodons, saber-toothed cats, camels, and giant ground sloths roamed across North America. Then, an episode of extinction wiped all those animals out. The cause of this wave of extinction is unclear, but possible explanations include dramatic climate changes at the end of the last ice age, hunting by humans, and infectious disease.



Immediately adjacent to the Miriam and Ira D. Wallach Orientation Center, which includes the video presentation The Evolution of Vertebrates, the Hall of Vertebrate Origins tells the story of the burgeoning of vertebrates through the oceans and onto land, an evolutionary sequence stretching back more than 500 million years. The development of some of the most basic, yet revolutionary, physical characteristics—the backbone, jaws, limbs, and the ability to reproduce without returning to the water—was key to the evolution of life on Earth and is examined in the Hall of Vertebrate Origins. The Hall traces the evolution of such stunningly varied creatures as the first vertebrates to walk on land, the first vertebrates to live entirely on land, and the first flying vertebrates. Highlights include Buettneria, one of the earliest four-limbed animals; the massive armored early fish Dunkleosteus; the gigantic aquatic turtle known as Stupendemys; and Pteranodon, a flying reptile, or pterosaur, with a wingspan of 23 feet.

2008-6-22 01:01 PM#1
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Isaac
[魚類] 中級會員
Rank: 3Rank: 3


貢獻勳章   演講勳章   出席勳章  
UID 3203
精華 1
積分 390
帖子 326
閱讀權限 50
註冊 2008-2-11
來自 香港
狀態 離線
Rose Center For Earth and Space

The opening of the Rose Center in February 2000 represented one of the most exciting chapters and most ambitious achievements in the Museum's long and distinguished history. In terms of sheer space alone, the monumental 120-foot-high, 333,500-square-foot facility increased the Museum's square footage by approximately 25 percent. It is a center for scientific research, a technological marvel, New York's latest architectural icon, and a powerful educational resource—in short, a singular facility that sets a new standard for museums and planetariums worldwide.

The Rose Center encompasses a completely rebuilt Hayden Planetarium and spectacular exhibition halls that explore the vast range of sizes in the cosmos; the 13-billion-year history of the universe; the fascinating nature of galaxies, stars, and planets; and the dynamic features of our own unique planet Earth.

Not only has the Rose Center received international acclaim for its exhibits and state-of-the-art technology, but it is considered one of New York City's most recent and boldest architectural landmarks. Its striking design includes the largest glass curtain wall in the United States, constructed of the clearest "water white" glass, and a thrilling interior space with a ceiling higher than that of Grand Central Station. Here the architecture serves the science; the entire facility was created with an eye toward informing and inspiring visitors.




The Dorothy and Lewis B. Cullman Hall of the Universe presents the discoveries and explorations of modern astrophysics. This 7,000-square-foot hall is divided into four zones featuring exhibit islands rich with astronomical imagery, rotating video displays, computer interactives, and more.

The Universe Zone probes the limits of our powers of observation, while exploring the ways in which our universe is expanding. The Galaxies Zone celebrates the exquisite beauty and diversity of galaxies, while providing information on their formation and evolution. The Stars Zone links supernovae to the elements created by them, the chemical building blocks of our own human bodies, reinforcing the notion that we are made of "star stuff." The Planets Zone illustrates the formation and evolution of planets, with an examination of major collisions that have occurred on Earth, as well as possible future impacts.




Amajor feature of the Rose Center is the Scales of the Universe exhibit along the 400-foot-long walkway that hugs the glass wall of the cube. This unique exhibit, which employs the facility's architectural features by using the Hayden Sphere as a basis for comparison, explores the vast range of sizes in the cosmos—from the observable universe to our planet to a tiny electron. Along the walkway, stations introduce visitors, by increments of the power of ten, to the relative sizes of atoms, planets, stars, and galaxies, by using text panels, interactive terminals, and both large, overhead and small, rail-mounted models. Enormous, realistically rendered planets, stars, and galaxies-including a nine-foot-diameter model of Jupiter and a model of Saturn with 17-foot-diameter rings-are suspended from the ceiling of the building.




Following the explosive Big Bang experience, visitors exit onto the Harriet and Robert Heilbrunn Cosmic Pathway, a dramatic, spiraling ramp that ushers them through 13 billion years of cosmic evolution. At the start of the walkway, visitors can measure the length of their stride and determine how many millions of years pass with each step. Thirteen markers along the way denote the passage of each billion years and, at eight landings, computer interactives help visitors understand the nature and size of the universe at that point in time. Artifacts are also on display, including evidence of the earliest bacterial life on Earth and the fossilized tooth of a giant carnivorous dinosaur. At the end of the 360-foot circular pathway, the thickness of a human hair illustrates the relative duration of human history, from cave paintings to the present day. The Heilbrunn Cosmic Pathway was specially designed to allow for adjustments and updates to the exhibitry, as research in astrophysics reveals new information about the age and nature of the universe.




Dominating the Rose Center is the magnificent Hayden Sphere, which features the world's largest virtual reality simulator. Weighing four million pounds and measuring 87 feet in diameter, the Hayden Sphere houses the Space Theater in its upper half and the Big Bang Theater in its lower hemisphere.

With the custom-made Zeiss Mark IX Star Projector and a Digital Dome Projection System, the 429-seat Space Theater displays a hyperrealistic view of the planets, star clusters, nebulae, and galaxies in an exhilarating journey from Earth to the edge of the observable universe. To create this virtual universe, a team of Museum scientists and visualization experts, along with colleagues from such organizations as NASA, worked in a remarkable collaboration of science, artistry, and advanced computing to "stitch together" images of our universe, based on astronomical observations and computer models. The Digital Galaxy Project has created the most accurate and complete picture of our Milky Way Galaxy, a portrait that provides the foundation for the Hayden Planetarium Space Show.

In the Big Bang Theater, visual and audio effects dramatically re-create how, according to scientists, the universe began with a burst of radiant energy from a point smaller than a grain of sand.




The David S. and Ruth L. Gottesman Hall of Planet Earth raises and explores key questions: How has the Earth evolved? Why are there ocean basins, continents, and mountains? How do we read the rocks? What causes climate and climate change? And, perhaps most significantly, why is Earth habitable?

The Hall combines touchable rock specimens with computer interactives, video, and soundscapes to convey the power and beauty of planet Earth. Displayed are a stunning collection of 168 geological samples collected by Museum scientists in dozens of field expeditions to such places as Mount Vesuvius, the Grand Canyon, and the Swiss Alps. Together with 11 dramatic, full-scale models of significant outcrops and geological features, the specimens create a hall that is as beautiful and varied as Earth itself. The oldest specimen in the hall is a strikingly beautiful red-banded iron formation that is 2.7 billion years old. The "youngest" is a piece of bright yellow sulfur that was collected by Museum scientists just moments after it condensed from clouds of gas emitting from an Indonesian volcano. Other exhibits include the suspended eight-foot-diameter Dynamic Earth Globe, which creates an entrancing, changing view of the planet as seen from outer space. The electronic Earth Event Wall broadcasts reports of global events, such as earthquakes, volcanoes, and atmospheric conditions, as they occur.


2008-6-22 01:02 PM#2
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Isaac
[魚類] 中級會員
Rank: 3Rank: 3


貢獻勳章   演講勳章   出席勳章  
UID 3203
精華 1
積分 390
帖子 326
閱讀權限 50
註冊 2008-2-11
來自 香港
狀態 離線
Culture Halls

The American Museum of Natural History's Division of Anthropology includes many of the world's most respected anthropologists, who conduct research around the world and steward an extensive collection of cultural artifacts amassed over more than a century. The groundbreaking work of Margaret Mead, Franz Boas, and many other early Museum anthropologists has shed light upon the richness of human cultures past and present. The public face of the Division comprises a series of exhibition halls that explores the traditional cultures of Asia, Africa, North and South America, and the Pacific.



The Hall of Northwest Coast Indians, the Museum's oldest hall, showcases the research conducted during the Museum's first major field expedition, the Jesup North Pacific Expedition (1897-1902), considered one of the most important anthropological field studies ever made. Organized by Museum President Morris K. Jesup and led by Franz Boas (1858-1942), known as the "father of American anthropology," the expedition set out to investigate the cultural and biological links between people living on both sides of the Bering Strait, with the hope of determining whether or not America was first populated by migrations from Asia. The cultures featured in the hall occupy North America's shores from Washington State to southern Alaska. The artifacts, folklore, and artwork displayed document and celebrate the customs and artistry of the Kwakiutl, Haida, Tlingit, Bella Coola, and other peoples. Exhibits include exquisite totem carvings, clothing, tools, and masks.




These halls showcase artifacts such as cooking utensils, clothing, weapons, and jewelry from traditional Native American cultures in the East and in the Plains. The Hall of Eastern Woodlands Indians focuses on the traditional cultures of the Mohegan, Ojibwa, Cree, and other Native American peoples living in the Eastern Woodlands of North America. In addition to artifacts, this hall features models of Eastern Woodlands lodgings, from the wigwam of the Ojibwa to the longhouse of the Iroquois. The Hall of Plains Indians focuses on the cultures of the mid-19th-century Blackfeet, Hidatsa, Dakota (Sioux), and other peoples of the North American Plains, and is also home to one of the Museum's greatest treasures, the Folsom Point. This flint arrowhead, found near Folsom, New Mexico, in 1926, provides irrefutable evidence that there were humans in the Americas as early as the last ice age.




Africa, a continent of nearly 12 million square miles and more than 700 million inhabitants, boasts a rich array of cultures. The Hall of African Peoples explores this great diversity, highlighting the traditional lifestyles and customs of people living in Africa's grasslands, deserts, forests, and river regions. The religious, political, economic, and domestic aspects of life are highlighted through artifacts and dioramas. On display are masks, musical instruments, farming tools, religious idols, ceremonial costumes, and more. Dioramas depict a variety of scenes, from the Berbers of the desert in North Africa to the Mbuti pygmies in the Congo. Also featured are the Yoruba, Pokot, and Bira peoples, among others.




The Museum's holdings in Asian ethnology constitute one of the finest such collections in the Western Hemisphere. This extensive collection provides the foundation for the Hall of Asian Peoples, the Museum's largest cultural hall. The hall explores such topics as prehistoric Eurasia and the rise of civilization, early Asian cultures, and Asian trade, and includes such vastly different and diverse regions as Korea, China, India, Armenia, and Siberia. The hall also documents the rise of the great world religions of Buddhism, Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, and Confucianism. Highlights include the shaman diorama, which faithfully re-creates a late 19th-century healing ceremony of the Yakut of Eastern Siberia. The scene depicts a shaman who has come to heal a woman whose soul has been captured by evil spirits. Also featured in the hall is an ornate wedding chair, which would have carried a traditional Chinese bride to her new life with her husband's family. The chair is covered with auspicious symbols to invite good fortune.




The diverse art, architecture, and traditions of the Maya, Toltec, Olmec, Aztec, and other Mesoamerican pre-Columbian cultures are the subjects of this hall. The outstanding collections on display include monuments, figurines, pottery, and jewelry that span from around 1200 B.C. to the early 1500s. Each object provides clues about the political and religious symbols, social traits, and artistic styles of its cultural group. Especially striking works on view include Costa Rican gold ornaments and a 3,000-year-old Olmec jade sculpture called the Kunz Axe, which may represent a chief or a shaman who transformed himself into a jaguar to partake of the animal's power. Also displayed are 9th-century Mayan stone carvings depicting scenes of conquest. Existing as early as 1500 B.C., the Mayan culture did not consist of a single empire, but rather was a collection of independent city-states that alternately warred and traded with one another.




This hall explores the pre-Columbian cultures of South America as well as the traditional cultures living in the region today, encompassing the ancient Inka, Moche, Chavin, and Chancay cultures as well as the many peoples of modern Amazonia. Especially evident in this hall is the exceeding importance of textile art among the ancient Andeans; this artistic tradition, which conveyed status and identity, harks back at least 5,000 years. Andean achievements in metallurgy were also remarkable. Throughout the hall, works of exquisite craftsmanship abound, as in the Royal Llama of the Inka from Bolivia. The figure, approximately 500 years old, is made of silver and its blanket is cinnabar trimmed with gold. Also on view are examples of spectacular Amazonian featherwork, including a headdress made from toucan and macaw feathers that once adorned a young man from the Rikbaktsa tribe. This object and others like it demonstrate the importance of ornamentation among the indigenous cultures of the Amazonian rain forest.




The renowned anthropologist Margaret Mead (1901-1978) worked in the Museum's Anthropology Department from 1926 until her death. Through her groundbreaking expeditions to Samoa, New Guinea, and Bali, Mead brought anthropological work into the public consciousness. Her studies provide the foundation for the Hall of Pacific Peoples, which reflects a remarkable geographic and cultural diversity. The Hall explores the cultures of the South Pacific islands, which range from tiny stretches of land to the island continent of Australia and include Polynesia, Micronesia, and Melanesia. Highlights include a display of elaborately painted and adorned dance masks from Northern New Ireland, part of Papua New Guinea. Made of wood and bark fibers, the masks represent specific spirits and are used in traditional dance ceremonies. Also on view are intricately detailed shadow puppets from Java. Originating in the 11th century, Javanese puppet theater is used as an educational tool to communicate information about religious tenets, moral codes, history, and myths.


2008-6-22 01:04 PM#3
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Isaac
[魚類] 中級會員
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貢獻勳章   演講勳章   出席勳章  
UID 3203
精華 1
積分 390
帖子 326
閱讀權限 50
註冊 2008-2-11
來自 香港
狀態 離線
Mammal  Halls

The Museum's mammal halls are among its most renowned and beloved. With precise depictions of geographical locations and the careful, anatomically correct mounting of the specimens, the Museum's dioramas are windows onto a world of animals, their behavior, and their habitats. Moreover, since many of the environments represented have been exploited or degraded, some dioramas preserve places and animals as they no longer exist. The visitor to these halls is able to travel not only across continents, but also, in some cases, through




Between 1922 and 1928, Museum Trustee Arthur S. Vernay and British Colonel John C. Faunthorpe conducted six expeditions to collect animal specimens in India, Burma (now Myanmar), and Siam (now Thailand). The specimens were then donated to the Museum and formed the foundation for this hall, which opened in 1930. The mounting of the animals in the Hall of Asian Mammals was overseen by James L. Clark using Carl Akeley's methods, and the hall's layout is similar to that of the Akeley Hall of African Mammals. As in the Akeley Hall, a group of elephants forms the centerpiece. These complementary exhibits allow the visitor to note the differences between the two types of elephant: The Asian elephant is generally smaller in size, with smaller ears and a higher forehead. The animals featured in this hall also include the water buffalo, gaur, leopard, and rhinoceros, and many represent species threatened by poaching and loss of habitat. Two examples of Asian mammals, the Siberian tiger and the giant panda, were among the animals relocated to the Endangered Case in the Hall of Biodiversity when it opened in 1998.




More than 25 Museum expeditions, ranging from Mexico to Ellesmere Island in the Canadian Arctic and from the Atlantic to the Pacific Oceans, produced the magnificent examples of North American mammals displayed in this hall. James Perry Wilson (1889-1976), a master of artful illusion, painted the backgrounds for many of the dioramas at the Museum, including those in the Hall of North American Mammals. In addition to accurately capturing every detail, his paintings evoke the intangible feel of the places they depict. This is owed in part to Wilson's dizzyingly precise perspective, one of his signature qualities. In his dioramas the real materials of the foreground merge impeccably with the painted background, uniting the two- and three-dimensional into a seamless whole.

Creating these illusions involved a great deal of research. To prepare the bison diorama, Wilson traveled to Wyoming in 1938 with a scientific specialist and another artist. There Wilson made color sketches, took photographs, and collected specimens for the foreground of the scene. On his return he painstakingly reproduced the Wyoming plains on the curved walls of the diorama. Other dioramas in the hall feature bighorn sheep, two moose locked in combat, and watchful jaguars.




Since its opening in 1936, the Akeley Hall of African Mammals has been considered one of the world's greatest museum displays. The hall is named after Carl Akeley (1864-1926), the explorer, conservationist, taxidermist, sculptor, and photographer who conceived of, designed, and collected for the hall. All the mammal dioramas in the Museum were created using his highly refined taxidermy and mounting techniques. The animals have been reconstructed with such scientific accuracy and detail that they appear astoundingly lifelike. Akeley's meticulous attention to veracity, which was applied to the plants, the painted backgrounds, and even the lighting in the dioramas, resulted in faithful and vivid reproductions of the worlds that he wanted to preserve.

The 28 dioramas in this hall, true works of art, depict some of the many animals and habitats of Africa, from the bongo and mandrill of the dense rain forests to the impala and elephant of the savannah. Carl Akeley had a lifelong devotion to the continent of Africa and the conservation of its beautiful wilderness areas. He traveled there many times, embarking on three expeditions for the Museum. During his final expedition, he fell ill and died. He was buried in Albert National Park (now Virunga National Park), the first wildlife sanctuary in central Africa, which he had helped to establish. The mountain location of his grave is near the scene depicted in the gorilla diorama in this hall.


2008-6-22 01:06 PM#4
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Isaac
[魚類] 中級會員
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貢獻勳章   演講勳章   出席勳章  
UID 3203
精華 1
積分 390
帖子 326
閱讀權限 50
註冊 2008-2-11
來自 香港
狀態 離線
The Hall of Biodiversity is a groundbreaking exhibition devoted to what many scientists believe is the most pressing environmental issue of our time: the need to protect and preserve our planet's biodiversity, the variety and interdependence of Earth's life forms. The 11,000-square-foot hall, which opened in 1998, represents an important step in the Museum's efforts to expand public understanding of Earth's diverse and often endangered life forms, while painting a vivid and inspiring portrait of the breathtaking beauty and abundance of life on Earth.

Dominating the hall is a spectacular diorama of the Dzanga-Sangha rain forest, which represents one of the most biodiversity-rich ecosystems on Earth. The diorama includes more than 160 species of flora and fauna and more than 500,000 leaves, each painstakingly made by hand. Representing a diorama "for the new millennium," the rain forest measures 90 feet long, 26 feet wide, and 18 feet high and invites visitors behind the glass into an immersive environment where high-resolution imagery, video, sound, and smell work together to create a habitat. The rain forest is depicted in three different states: pristine, altered by natural forces, and degraded by human intervention.

Another major element of the hall is the Spectrum of Life, the only exhibit of its kind in the world, showcasing the glorious diversity of life resulting from 3.5 billion years of evolution. Organized into 28 groups along a 100-foot-long installation are more than 1,500 specimens and models—microorganisms and mammals, bacteria and beetles, fungi and fish.






The Museum has several halls dedicated to birds, ranging from the local (New York City Birds) to the regional (North American Birds) to the global (Birds of the World). In addition, the Whitney Memorial Hall of Oceanic Birds features the bird populations of the Pacific and the southern polar seas. Together these halls portray the wide variety of avian life on the planet, as well as the vastly diverse locations that birds inhabit.


The Hall of Biodiversity is a groundbreaking exhibition devoted to what many scientists believe is the most pressing environmental issue of our time: the need to protect and preserve our planet's biodiversity, the variety and interdependence of Earth's life forms. The 11,000-square-foot hall, which opened in 1998, represents an important step in the Museum's efforts to expand public understanding of Earth's diverse and often endangered life forms, while painting a vivid and inspiring portrait of the breathtaking beauty and abundance of life on Earth.

Dominating the hall is a spectacular diorama of the Dzanga-Sangha rain forest, which represents one of the most biodiversity-rich ecosystems on Earth. The diorama includes more than 160 species of flora and fauna and more than 500,000 leaves, each painstakingly made by hand. Representing a diorama "for the new millennium," the rain forest measures 90 feet long, 26 feet wide, and 18 feet high and invites visitors behind the glass into an immersive environment where high-resolution imagery, video, sound, and smell work together to create a habitat. The rain forest is depicted in three different states: pristine, altered by natural forces, and degraded by human intervention.

Another major element of the hall is the Spectrum of Life, the only exhibit of its kind in the world, showcasing the glorious diversity of life resulting from 3.5 billion years of evolution. Organized into 28 groups along a 100-foot-long installation are more than 1,500 specimens and models—microorganisms and mammals, bacteria and beetles, fungi and fish.



2008-6-22 01:08 PM#5
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Isaac
[魚類] 中級會員
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貢獻勳章   演講勳章   出席勳章  
UID 3203
精華 1
積分 390
帖子 326
閱讀權限 50
註冊 2008-2-11
來自 香港
狀態 離線
Dioramas

The Museum's habitat group dioramas, located extensively throughout its halls, are among the most renowned and beloved exhibits at the Museum. With precise depictions of geographical locations and the careful, anatomically correct mounting of specimens, these stunning dioramas are windows onto a world of animals, their behavior, and their habitats. Moreover, since many of the environments represented have been exploited or degraded, some dioramas preserve places and animals as they no longer exist. The viewer of a habitat group diorama is able to travel not only across continents, but also, in some cases, through time.

Using a palette of rich multimedia, the Museum's "virtual dioramas" bring an experience of these fascinating exhibits directly to online visitors. In addition to presenting a 360° interactive experience of some of the Museum's hallmark dioramas, these virtual dioramas provide a wealth of educational information about the history and science that underlies each exhibit. Please select a Museum hall from the menu to view its available virtual dioramas, or see "Learn More" for general information about dioramas and the science that informs them.
2008-6-22 01:10 PM#6
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Isaac
[魚類] 中級會員
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貢獻勳章   演講勳章   出席勳章  
UID 3203
精華 1
積分 390
帖子 326
閱讀權限 50
註冊 2008-2-11
來自 香港
狀態 離線
Other Halls

The Museum houses 45 permanent exhibition halls that explore the natural world, foster an understanding of cultures, consider humanity's place in the universe, and inspire awe at the beauty and complexity of life that surrounds us. Among the most popular of the Museum's halls are the Irma and Paul Milstein Hall of Ocean Life, currently undergoing a major renovation; the Arthur Ross Hall of Meteorites, with the magnificent Cape York meteorite; the Guggenheim Hall of Minerals and Morgan Hall of Gems with their dazzling displays of specimens; and the Hall of Reptiles and Amphibians.

All of the Museum's permanent exhibitions are built on a solid scientific foundation, interpret the work of Museum scientists past and present, and showcase the Museum's world-renowned collections.




The Milstein Hall of Ocean Life is home to the Museum's beloved 94-foot-long model of a blue whale, a powerful evocation of the massive yet graceful nature of the largest animal ever to roam the planet. This hall, which displays creatures and environments from across the globe, reopened in May, 2003 after a major renovation project was completed. The 29,000-square-foot hall was transformed through current scientific research and cutting-edge exhibition technology into a fully immersive marine environment with video projection screens and interactive computer stations, all still watched over by the great whale. The extensive renovations provide a rich context for the latest marine research while restoring the classical architectural elegance of this popular hall.




This hall exploring the ecology of North American forests features a piece of a giant sequoia tree. The sequoia, which was cut down in 1891, had survived for more than 1,300 years and its full height exceeded 300 feet. Around the central point of the tree slice are concentric rings, some of which are invisible to the naked eye; each of these represents one year's growth. Conveying the immense age of the tree are markers on some of the growth rings corresponding to significant historical events, such as Charlemagne being crowned Holy Roman Emperor (800 A.D.).

Traveling through scale rather than time, a diorama of the forest floor represents a cross section of the soil, enlarged to 24 times its actual size. This scene demonstrates the process of decomposition, by which natural debris is broken down into new substances, which exist in the soil as nutrients. While bacteria and fungi help break the debris down, so do some of the creatures re-created in the diorama.




The primate order, one of the many subdivisions of mammals, includes monkeys, apes, and humans. This hall provides an overview of primates through skeletons, mounted specimens, and artwork. The order is broken down into families, in displays that trace both their shared characteristics and those unique to each group, demonstrating a fascinating variety of animals. Primates range in size from the pygmy marmoset to the orangutan and gorilla, and include species such as tree shrews that more closely resemble rodents. While the apes, which are specialized for swinging by their hands, do not have tails, many primates such as spider monkeys have long tails they use for grasping. Some species live predominantly among the trees while others inhabit the forest floor, and primates' habitats are found from South America to Southeast Asia to Africa. The visitor can explore the relationship of hominids, or humans, to other primates through these characteristics and others, including posture, the amount of body hair, and the shape of the hand and especially the thumb.




This hall explores the fascinating features of reptiles and amphibians, arranging them into such themes as anatomy, defense, locomotion, distribution, reproduction, and feeding. The visitor can view the great range of these animals' physical forms, from the tiniest toad to the fearsome crocodile, and the widely diverse ways in which they move, protect themselves, chase prey, and reproduce. Exhibits include the leatherback sea turtle laying its eggs in the sand, the Australian frilled lizard raising its frill of skin to exaggerate its size to a predator, and the Komodo dragon stretching its jaws across the belly of a wild boar. Komodo dragons are especially impressive for their great size and their rarity. These ferocious hunters, which can grow to a length of ten feet and weigh as much as 200 pounds, are found in Indonesia and are endangered. While these reptiles, the largest lizards on Earth, are now being bred in captivity, their continued existence in the wild depends on the maintenance of their native habitat.




he story of Homo sapiens is the topic of this hall, which explores human biology and anatomy, traces the path of human evolution, and examines the origins of human creativity. It is the only major exhibit in the country to present an in-depth investigation of the mysteries of human evolution.

The hall features four life-size dioramas of human predecessors Australopithecus afarensis, Homo ergaster, Neanderthal, and Cro-Magnon, showing each species in its habitat and demonstrating the behaviors and capabilities that scientists believe it had. Also displayed are full-sized casts of important fossils, such as the four-million-year-old "Lucy" skeleton and the 1.7-million-year-old "Turkana Boy," and Homo erectus specimens including a cast of "Peking Man." In addition, the hall features replicas of striking Ice Age art found in the Dordogne region of southwestern France. These beautiful limestone carvings of horses were made nearly 26,000 years ago and represent what is believed to be the earliest artistic expression of humans.


2008-6-22 01:15 PM#7
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Isaac
[魚類] 中級會員
Rank: 3Rank: 3


貢獻勳章   演講勳章   出席勳章  
UID 3203
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積分 390
帖子 326
閱讀權限 50
註冊 2008-2-11
來自 香港
狀態 離線
Other Halls (2)

This corridor linking the Akeley Hall of African Mammals with the Hall of African Peoples provides gallery space for special photographic exhibitions. On Feathered Wings: Birds in Flight, an exhibition of over 30 striking photographs featuring dramatic images of birds in flight, is on view from June 21, 2008 through May 25, 2009. Past shows have included Undersea Oasis: Coral Reef Communities, a photo exhibition which explores colorful marine invertebrates; Mongolia Observed, contemporary and historical photographs that shed light on the everyday lives of Mongolian people; Ancient Microworlds, a series of large-format color photographs exploring the internal structure and beauty of a variety of fossils; Iceland: Land of the Vikings, which presented panoramic views of the rugged and majestic countryside of Iceland; A World of Families, featuring black-and-white images of family life around the world, taken by Margaret Mead collaborator Ken Heyman; and Under Antarctic Ice, large-format photographs of Antarctica's harshly beautiful marine habitat, by wildlife photographer Norbert Wu.




Theodore Roosevelt Rotunda is New York State's official memorial to the 26th president of the United States, who not only led expeditions for the American Museum of Natural History and augmented its collections with new species, but also strengthened the cause for national conservation. Designed by John Russell Pope, the Rotunda was dedicated in 1936 and declared a New York City landmark in 1967. It serves as the Museum's main entrance lobby, and is home to the Barosaurus exhibit, the world's tallest freestanding mount of a dinosaur.




This hall is a tribute to Theodore Roosevelt (1858—1919), and the contributions he made to city, state, and nation through the many roles he played during his life. Born in New York City and raised in Oyster Bay, Long Island, Roosevelt became involved in New York City and State government, and went on to serve as Vice President and later, President of the United States. He was a pioneer of the conservation movement and had been involved with the American Museum of Natural History since his childhood—the original charter creating the Museum was signed in his family home in 1869.

Roosevelt's many accomplishments include winning the 1910 Nobel Peace Prize for a treaty that ended the Russo-Japanese War; and leading a Museum expedition to South America to chart the unknown course of the River of Doubt, found to be a branch of the Amazon (later renamed Rio Teodoro in his honor). Roosevelt's refusal to shoot a bear for sport while on a hunt led to the creation of the famous toy Teddy Bear.

The four dioramas in the hall depict Roosevelt's Elk Horn Ranch, in the badlands of North Dakota; an Adirondacks forest scene representing his support for conservation of both wildlife and forests; the Roosevelt Bird Sanctuary in Oyster Bay, New York, which is also Roosevelt's final resting place; and lastly, a scene from Old New York in 1660, depicting Peter Stuyvesant, Governor of New York, receiving a delegation of Hackensack Indians from New Jersey. Theodore Roosevelt's ancestors settled in lower Manhattan around 1644, and he also served as Governor of New York State.

This hall also features an insect collection case showing various beetles and entomology photos, and a model of the Anopheles mosquito. This model of a male malarial mosquito (75 times life size) was built over 90 years ago as part of an exhibition about the spread of disease by insects. Malaria, yellow fever, and other insect-borne diseases were a common and real threat in New York City at the turn of the 20th century.

Also on display is a model of the dodo, Raphus cucillatus, a bird related to the pigeon that lived on the island of Mauritius, east of Madagascar in the Indian Ocean. The dodo had evolved to be flightless and nested on the ground. In the 17th century Dutch explorers discovered the island, named the bird Dodoor ("sluggard"), and killed large numbers for food, as did others who came later. Animals introduced by humans ate the eggs. The population was decimated and the dodo was extinct by 1681. No complete specimens remain.

The hall also includes a bust of Albert Smith Bickmore, founder of the Museum, and a bust of Henry Fairfield Osborn, who served as President of the Museum for 25 years and founded the Paleontology Department.


2008-6-22 01:18 PM#8
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Isaac
[魚類] 中級會員
Rank: 3Rank: 3


貢獻勳章   演講勳章   出席勳章  
UID 3203
精華 1
積分 390
帖子 326
閱讀權限 50
註冊 2008-2-11
來自 香港
狀態 離線
Other Halls (3)

This hall chronicles the development of New York State's natural landscape over time. It describes the geological history from Precambrian times (2 billion years ago) to the present day, including glaciation, and displays of local fossils showing that New York was a marine environment at one time. The hall uses the area of Stissing Mountain and the Village of Pine Plains in the Hudson Valley as an example because of its varied terrain: mountains, natural lakes, forests, variety of rock formations, and both wild and cultivated land.

The hall also describes New York State agriculture and ecology, and how these affect the evolution of the landscape. Agricultural exhibits explain the processes of soil creation and soil conservation, the importance of crop rotation, the use of natural fertilizers in the soil (nitrogen-fixing bacteria), the structure of a bean plant, root structure of a plant, and life in the soil-an important factor in the existence of life above.

The ecological exhibits cover the water cycle, the relationship of plants to geology, the cycle of nutrition and decay, photosynthesis and respiration, life in a pond as a closed system, and changes to the environment through the seasons.




Meteorites are solid particles from space that survive the passage through Earth's atmosphere to fall to the ground. In addition to such specimens as moon rocks and a meteorite studded with tiny diamonds, the Arthur Ross Hall of Meteorites contains the Cape York Meteorite, the world's largest meteorite on display. This 4.5-billion-year-old specimen is so heavy, 34 tons, that its supports go straight through the floor down to the bedrock beneath the building. The massive meteorite, which probably comes from the center of a small planetary body that was broken apart, is a type known as an iron meteorite; it is composed of metallic iron and nickel, similar to the metallic core at the center of Earth. When Arctic explorer Robert E. Peary (1856-1920) discovered the specimen in 1894, he learned that it had been used for centuries by the Inuits as a source of iron for knives and other weapons. When touching the meteorite, visitors are touching an object that is both part of human history and a relic of our solar system.




These halls contain exquisite treasures, which can be systematically arranged according to their similarities and differences in the same manner as animals and plants. In the Hall of Minerals the visitor finds minerals composed of a single element, such as gold and copper, and groups that combine several elements, such as the silicates quartz, amethyst, and mica. The Hall of Gems displays groups of stones that showcase an extraordinary range of size, color, and shape. Among these specimens is the 563-carat Star of India, the largest and most famous star sapphire in the world. Formed some two billion years ago, the Star of India was discovered several centuries ago and donated to the Museum by J. P. Morgan in 1900. Also featured in the Hall of Gems is the Patricia Emerald, a 632-carat specimen that is one of the very few large, gem-quality emeralds that have been preserved uncut. The specimen is exceedingly rare not only because of its size and color, but also because of its dihexagonal, or twelve-sided, shape.




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2008-6-22 01:24 PM#9
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Isaac
[魚類] 中級會員
Rank: 3Rank: 3


貢獻勳章   演講勳章   出席勳章  
UID 3203
精華 1
積分 390
帖子 326
閱讀權限 50
註冊 2008-2-11
來自 香港
狀態 離線
改#6

Hall of Biodiversity

The Hall of Biodiversity is a groundbreaking exhibition devoted to what many scientists believe is the most pressing environmental issue of our time: the need to protect and preserve our planet's biodiversity, the variety and interdependence of Earth's life forms. The 11,000-square-foot hall, which opened in 1998, represents an important step in the Museum's efforts to expand public understanding of Earth's diverse and often endangered life forms, while painting a vivid and inspiring portrait of the breathtaking beauty and abundance of life on Earth.

Dominating the hall is a spectacular diorama of the Dzanga-Sangha rain forest, which represents one of the most biodiversity-rich ecosystems on Earth. The diorama includes more than 160 species of flora and fauna and more than 500,000 leaves, each painstakingly made by hand. Representing a diorama "for the new millennium," the rain forest measures 90 feet long, 26 feet wide, and 18 feet high and invites visitors behind the glass into an immersive environment where high-resolution imagery, video, sound, and smell work together to create a habitat. The rain forest is depicted in three different states: pristine, altered by natural forces, and degraded by human intervention.

Another major element of the hall is the Spectrum of Life, the only exhibit of its kind in the world, showcasing the glorious diversity of life resulting from 3.5 billion years of evolution. Organized into 28 groups along a 100-foot-long installation are more than 1,500 specimens and models—microorganisms and mammals, bacteria and beetles, fungi and fish.




Bird Halls

he Museum has several halls dedicated to birds, ranging from the local (New York City Birds) to the regional (North American Birds) to the global (Birds of the World). In addition, the Whitney Memorial Hall of Oceanic Birds features the bird populations of the Pacific and the southern polar seas. Together these halls portray the wide variety of avian life on the planet, as well as the vastly diverse locations that birds inhabit.




The Hall of North American Birds is named for Frank M. Chapman (1864-1945), the Museum's renowned ornithologist. Under the direction of Chapman, a leader in the study of bird speciation and distribution in the Western Hemisphere, the Museum's bird collection grew to become one of the greatest in the world and now holds 99 percent of all known species. The peregrine falcon diorama in this hall is one of many that Chapman conceived, and it re-creates a scene he actually saw on the Hudson River Palisades. The diorama shows an adult arriving at a nest site with a newly caught pigeon.


2008-6-22 01:30 PM#10
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